perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan

Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi merupakan salah satu modal penting dalam membangun suatu negara. Sejak berdirinya Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia tahun 1945, pihak pemerintah dan swasta berupaya mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang cocok bagi pembangunan bangsa dan negara Indonesia. Salah satu indikator kesungguhan dalam mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan yaitu didirikannya lembaga-lembaga pendidikan dan penelitian, yang didirikan baik oleh pemerintah maupun swasta.
Kepedulian terhadap perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi serta budaya di Indonesia sudah ada sejak masa kolonial. Lembaga-lembaga iptek yang didirikan saat itu antara lain Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (BGKW) dan Lembaga Biologi Molekular Eijkman.
Setelah Indonesia merdeka, lembaga-lembaga itu tetap berlanjut namun di bawah naungan pemerintah RI. BWKG misalnya, sekarang lebih dikenal dengan nama Museum Gajah. Selain lembaga-lembaga peninggalan Belanda tersebut pemerintah RI juga mendirikan lembaga-lembaga penelitian baru sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman. Lembaga-lembaga penelitian itu antara lain Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN), Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (LAPAN), Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasioanal (Bakosurtanal), Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), dan Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN).
Selain lembaga-lembaga penelitian, perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia juga mengalami kemajuan. Dalam bidang komunikasi, pemerintah RI membeli satelit yang diberi nama Sistem Komunikasi Satelit Domestik Palapa (SKSD Palapa). Lembaga-lembaga siaran radio dan televisi juga mengalami perkembangan pesat sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia.

perkembangan IT

Process IT Development provides multi-disciplinary consultancy, applications engineering and software engineering for the process control industry.

From offices in Norway and the United Kindom, we provide solutions across a number of sectors within the industry:
Oil and Gas
Petrochemicals
Power Generation
Mining and Minerals

Within each of these industry sectors, our engineers provide expertise in many systems and applications:
Process Control Systems
ESD/PSD Systems
Subsea Control Systems
Alarm Management
HMI and Operability Consulting
Production Reporting
Performance and Condition Monitoring

Our clients include:
Honeywell
Matrikon Europe
Total
Shell
BP
Woodside Energy

in indonesia

Indonesia’s 1998 post-authoritarian transition was accompanied by an upsurge of violent conflict. Reforms to democratize and decentralize the Indonesian state led to new struggles over power, identity and resources. Old tensions, previously suppressed by force, emerged. In the absence of effective mechanisms and institutional structures to manage conflicts, in many places they escalated into violence.

The human security costs have been significant: thousands of lives lost, property destroyed, and widespread fear and insecurity amongst those affected. The violence has also resulted in economic retraction, affected service delivery and, in some parts of the country, launched a downwards poverty spiral. While aggregate levels of violent conflict appear to have declined in recent years, violence is still prevalent and there may be potential for re-escalation.

After more than a decade of democratic rule in Indonesia, it is necessary to take stock of the violence that has occurred (understanding the forms it has taken, its impacts, and why it occurred), to examine current forms of conflict in Indonesia, and to evaluate the risk of future escalation. It is also important to assess what has worked in limiting violence in Indonesia and what has been less successful. Understanding past and present conflict trends, and the successes and failures of different conflict management approaches, can provide lessons on how to ensure Indonesia’s development is not accompanied by widespread violence.

The Conflict and Development program – together with its counterparts in government, CSOs and other aid agencies – works within this context to provide evidence and analysis, ideas and funding to support peaceful development in Indonesia. Three tenets drive the program’s work:

Understanding local conflict dynamics can aid in the design of effective programs that are sensitive to local contexts: Context is important at two levels. First, as a middle-income country where the state and markets still function, Indonesia requires different approaches to conflict management than those developed for failed or weak states. Second, because many of the factors that determine different forms and levels of conflict in Indonesia are local, interventions that are tailored to specifically target the dominant local form of violence may have a significant overall impact on levels of violence.

Rigorously evaluating interventions is necessary to see what works. Evaluations that combine international standard social science methodology with deep knowledge of local context can generate lessons with application to Indonesia and other conflict-affected countries.

Interventions will only contribute to sustainable post-conflict transitions if they are owned by governments, civil society and communities in conflict-affected areas: Partnerships and coalition-building are thus key.